- Bunker checklists
- World map
- Developments in ports
- Safety restrictions and impacts
- Bunkering practices
- Supply chain and infrastructure
- Funding for LNG infrastructure
- Business case
In a rule published on 30 April 2010, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) adopted standards that apply to Category 3 (C3, >30 l per cylinder) engines installed on US vessels and marine diesel fuels produced and distributed in the United States. This rule added two new tiers of engine standards for C3 engines: Tier II standards that began in 2011 and Tier III standards that begin in 2016. It also includes a regulatory programme to implement Annex VI to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Annex VI) in the United States, including engine and fuel sulphur limits, and extends the ECA engine and fuel requirements to US inland lakes and waterways. The rule also revised the Federal Clean Air Act diesel fuel programme to allow for the production and sale of diesel fuel with up to 1,000 ppm sulphur for use in C3 marine vessels, phased in by 2015.
LNG is a proven technology for complying with the upcoming MARPOL Annex VI regulations. At the moment, LNG is the only available option that is able to meet both the SECA and NECA requirements without the need for using marine gas oil.